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Hapten Coupling to Immunogenic Carriers

Most immunologically interesting haptens are too small to induce an immune response alone and must be conjugated to carrier, usually a protein. Most conjugations are relatively straight-forward.  However, some haptens require modification before they can be successfully coupled to a carrier. As each hapten is unique, our strategies for hapten modification will range from simple modification of a portion of the existing hapten to total de novo synthesis of the entire modified hapten.

Hapten Modification and Coupling to Immunogenic Carriers – Overview (PDF, not yet available)

The following Technical Note contains a non-exhaustive description of the coupling methodologies currently available through our services for the synthesis of immunogenic carriers with modified antigenic (hapten) molecules:

Hapten Modification and Coupling to Immunogenic Carriers – Chemistry (PDF, not yet available)

For questions or a personal consultation, do not hesitate to contact us at the following telephone number or e-mail address:

Telephone: +49 30-9489-2201
E-mail: tech(at)